The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the long-term efficacy of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in a group of children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).Thirty-one children diagnosed with OSA were involved in the study. These children had isolated maxillary narrowing and absence of enlarged adenotonsils at baseline. Twenty-three individuals (73% of the initial group) were followed up annually over a mean of 12 years after the completion of orthodontic treatment at a mean age of 8.68 years. Eight children dropped out over time due to either moving out of the area (n?=?6) or refusal to submit to regular follow-up (n?=?2). Subjects underwent clinical reevaluation over time and repeat polysomnography (PSG) in the late teenage years or in their early 20s. During the follow-up period, eight children dropped out and 23 individuals (including 10 girls) underwent a final clinical investigation with PSG (mean age of 20.9 years). The final evaluation also included computerized tomographic (CT) imaging that was compared with pre- and post-initial treatment findings.Yearly clinical evaluations, including orthodontic and otolaryngological examinations and questionnaire scores, were consistently normal over time, and PSG findings remained normal at the 12-year follow-up period. The stability and maintenance of the expansion over time was demonstrated by the maxillary base width and the distance of the pterygoid processes measured using CT imaging.A subgroup of OSA children with isolated maxillary narrowing initially and followed up into adulthood present stable, long-term results post RME treatment for pediatric OSA.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.sleep.2015.04.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000358087000006