Recombinant vaccinia virus may be an ideal viral vector for cancer gene therapy. It has a large genome that is able to be engineered for the insertion and simultaneous expression of multiple genes. It reliably infects a large variety of tumors and expresses high levels of the gene(s) of interest. Although naturally cytopathic, it can be engineered to be noncytopathic but still infectious. Recently, it has been used in preclinical trials of animals and patients with cancer.
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