Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are common running injuries and may occur at a rate of 20% annually. Both biological and biomechanical risk factors contribute to BSI. Evaluation of a runner with suspected BSI includes completing an appropriate history and physical examination. MRI grading classification for BSI has been proposed and may guide return to play. Management includes activity modification, optimizing nutrition, and addressing risk factors, including the female athlete triad. BSI prevention strategies include screening for risk factors during preparticipation evaluations, optimizing nutrition (including adequate caloric intake, calcium, and vitamin D), and promoting ball sports during childhood and adolescence.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pmr.2015.08.008
View details for PubMedID 26616181