Response to Therapy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Patients With Isolated Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Associated Transmitted Drug Resistance JAIDS-JOURNAL OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES Clutter, D. S., Fessel, W. J., Rhee, S., Hurley, L. B., Klein, D. B., Ioannidis, J. P., Silverberg, M. J., Shafer, R. W. 2016; 72 (2): 171-176


Nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-associated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is the most common type of TDR. Few data guide the selection of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients with such resistance.We reviewed treatment outcomes in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients with isolated NNRTI TDR who initiated ART between April 2002 and May 2014. In an as-treated analysis, virological failure (VF) was defined as not reaching undetectable virus levels within 24 weeks, virological rebound, or switching regimens during viremia. In an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, failure was defined more broadly as VF, loss to follow-up (LTFU), and switching during virological suppression.Of 3,245 patients, 131 (4.0%) had isolated NNRTI TDR. 122 received a standard regimen comprising two NRTIs plus a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI; n=54), an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI; n=52), or an NNRTI (n=16). The median follow-up was 100 weeks. In the as-treated analysis, VF occurred in 15% (n=8), 2% (n=1) and 25% (n=4) of patients in the bPI, INSTI and NNRTI groups, respectively. In multivariate regression, there was a trend toward a lower risk of VF with INSTIs than with bPIs (HR 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02,1.1; p = 0.07). In ITT multivariate regression, INSTIs had a lower risk of failure than bPIs (HR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18,0.82; p = 0.01).Patients with isolated NNRTI TDR experienced low VF rates with INSTIs and bPIs. INSTIs were non-inferior to bPIs in an analysis of VF but superior to bPIs when frequency of switching and LTFU were also considered.

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