To provide further information addressing the etiology, optimal hormonal management and surgical management in catamenial pneumothorax (CP).We retrospectively analyzed records of all female patients operated on for spontaneous pneumothorax at a university hospital between January 1993 and March 2002.In eight of 24 patients, pneumothoraces were timed with menses. In all, the right side was involved. Seven patients were on hormonal medications pre-operatively and six post-operatively. All six patients taking estrogen/progesterone replacement had recurrences pre-operatively and two of three had recurrences post-operatively while on these medications. No patient suffered a pneumothorax either pre- or post-operatively while taking a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (two and three patients, respectively). Intraoperative findings included diaphragmatic implants  diaphragmatic fenestrations , apical blebs  and visceral pleural implants . All pathology was specifically addressed at the time of surgery. Pleural space management included mechanical pleurodesis in seven and pleurectomy with talc insufflation in 1. Follow-up ranged from 27 to 63 months with a mean of 48 months. Three patients developed post-operative recurrences. One was managed without intervention and two required additional procedures.Catamenial pneumothorax is under appreciated, representing up to one-third of women with spontaneous pneumothorax. Hormonal agents that allow for menses are ineffective. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists should be considered as part of the pre-operative or post-operative management in high risk patients. Our findings suggest that an additional intervention to augment pleural symphysis at the level of the diaphragm should be performed.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejcts.2004.12.047
View details for Web of Science ID 000228319600035
View details for PubMedID 15784370