Thrombospondin 1 and its specific cysteine-serine-valine-threonine-cysteine-glycine receptor in fetal wounds ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Roth, J. J., Sung, J. J., Granick, M. S., Solomon, M. P., Longaker, M. T., Rothman, V. L., Nicosia, R. F., Tuszynski, G. P. 1999; 42 (5): 553-563


Thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1), an adhesive glycoprotein, plays an important role in platelet adhesion, inflammation, cell-cell interaction, and angiogenesis. TSP-1 is expressed by endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages. The unique cysteine-serinevaline-threonine-cysteine-glycine (CSVTCG) binding domain of TSP-1 also plays an important role in cell binding and modulation of cellular processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate histologically and quantitatively TSP-1 and its CSVTCG receptor in fetal skin wounds over time. Pregnant ewes underwent laparotomy and hysterotomy. At 65 days gestation (term, 145 days), incisional and excisional wounds were created on the fetal back in a similar position on each animal. The uterus and laparotomy were closed. The wounds were harvested on days 1, 3, 7, 21, and 28. Expression of TSP-1 and its CSVTCG receptor was evaluated immunohistochemically and quantitated by computer image analysis in units of absorbance. Immunoglobulin G (negative) controls were performed and subtracted from the TSP-1 sample to eliminate background absorbance readings. Serum (negative) control was used for the CSVTCG receptor. Platelet concentrates were used as the positive control: TSP-1, 63.43; CSVTCG, 58.72. Results are expressed as absorbance+/-SEM. Results of TSP-1 are as follows: day 1, 33.02+/-0.26; day 3, 22.21+/-0.14; day 7, 20.56+/-1.07; day 21, 7.76+/-0.40; and day 28, 5.99+/-0.03. TSP-1 displays an early peak during fetal skin repair, followed by a steep decrease over the viewed time period. Results of CSVTCG receptor are as follows: day 1, 26.19+/-2.43; day 3, 30.20+/-0.64; day 7, 24.56+/-0.80; day 21, 24.70+/-0.40; and day 28, 21.65+/-1.39. Thus, CSVTCG receptor displays a slowed decrease in expression over time during fetal repair. No significant differences were noted between incisional and excisional samples. Temporal and histological differences exist in the localization and expression of TSP-1 and its CSVTCG receptor during fetal wound repair. TSP-1 is upregulated in tissues early. This corresponds with the known role of TSP-1 in cell-cell interaction, including potentiation of growth factor activity. TSP-1 also modulates matrix, allowing scar-free provisional matrix in the earlier stages of repair deposited by platelets. The potentiation of cell-associated protease activity by TSP-1 can support tissue and matrix turnover. This activity of TSP-1 may contribute to the formation of a scarless wound. TSP-1 destabilizes extracellular matrix contacts, and facilitates mitosis and migration. The action of TSP-1 as an adhesive protein allows numerous different cells to adhere to the extracellular membrane. CSVTCG receptor expression decreases during fetal repair as the cells migrate to the epithelial surface, suggesting a significant role of the CSVTCG receptor in keratinocytic maturation, differentiation, and epithelization.

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