Patients with heart failure (HF) are frequently hospitalized with common bacterial infections. It is unknown whether they experience concomitant Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) more frequently than patients without HF, and whether CDI affects their mortality.We used 2012 National Inpatient Sample data to determine the rate of CDI and associated in-hospital mortality for hospitalized patients with comorbid HF and urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia (PNA), or sepsis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Weighted data are presented.There were an estimated 5,851,582 patient hospitalizations with discharge diagnosis of UTI, PNA, or sepsis in 2012 in the United States. Of these, 23.4% had discharge diagnosis of HF. Patients with HF were on average older and had more comorbidities. CDI rates were higher in hospitalizations with discharge diagnosis of HF compared with those without HF (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.16) after controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities and hospital characteristics. Among HF hospitalizations with UTI, PNA, or sepsis, those with concomitant CDI had a higher in-hospital mortality than those without concomitant CDI (odds ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.71-1.92) after controlling for the covariates outlined previously.HF is associated with higher CDI rates among hospitalized patients with other common bacterial infections, even when adjusting for other known risk factors for CDI. Among these patients with comorbid HF, CDI is associated with markedly higher in-hospital mortality. These findings may suggest an opportunity to improve outcomes for hospitalized patients with HF and common bacterial infections, possibly through improved Clostridium difficile screening and prophylaxis protocols.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2016.06.005
View details for PubMedID 27317844