The evaluation of plasma testing for the EGFR resistance mutation T790M in NSCLC patients has not been broadly explored. We investigated the detection of EGFR activating and T790M mutations in matched tumor tissue and plasma, mostly from patients with acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR inhibitors.Samples were obtained from two studies, an observational study and a phase I trial of rociletinib, a mutant-selective inhibitor of EGFR that targets both activating mutations and T790M. Plasma testing was performed with the cobas EGFR plasma test and BEAMing.The positive percent agreement (PPA) between cobas plasma and tumor results was 73% (55/75) for activating mutations and 64% (21/33) for T790M. The PPA between BEAMing plasma and tumor results was 82% (49/60) for activating mutations and 73% (33/45) for T790M. Presence of extrathoracic (M1b) versus intrathoracic (M1a/M0) disease was found to be strongly associated with ability to identify EGFR mutations in plasma (P < 0.001). Rociletinib objective response rates (ORR) were 52% [95% confidence interval (CI), 31 - 74%] for cobas tumor T790M-positive and 44% (95% CI, 25 - 63%) for BEAMing plasma T790M-positive patients. A drop in plasma-mutant EGFR levels to =10 molecules/mL was seen by day 21 of treatment in 7 of 8 patients with documented partial response.These findings suggest the cobas and BEAMing plasma tests can be useful tools for noninvasive assessment and monitoring of the T790M resistance mutation in NSCLC, and could complement tumor testing by identifying T790M mutations missed because of tumor heterogeneity or biopsy inadequacy. Clin Cancer Res; 22(10); 2386-95. ©2016 AACR.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1260
View details for Web of Science ID 000375839200011
View details for PubMedID 26747242