This article reviews the fundamental principles and clinical experimental uses of magnetic resonance guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) ablation of musculoskeletal tumors. MRgHIFU is a noninvasive treatment modality that takes advantage of the ability of magnetic resonance to measure tissue temperature and uses this technology to guide high-intensity focused ultrasound waves to a specific focus within the human body that results in heat generation and complete thermal necrosis of the targeted tissue. Adjacent normal tissues are spared because of the accurate delivery of thermal energy, as well as, local blood perfusion that provides a cooling effect. MRgHIFU is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of uterine fibroids and is used on an experimental basis to treat breast, prostate, liver, bone, and brain tumors.
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