To characterize cranioplasty complications and costs at a population level using a longitudinal national claims database.We identified cranioplasty patients between 2007-2014 in the MarketScan national database. We evaluated age, autograft usage, cranioplasty size, and cranioplasty timing on postoperative outcomes. We further analyzed associated costs. A subset analysis of adult cranioplasty patients with emergent indications, including stroke and trauma, was also performed.We identified 8,275 patients (mean 44.0±20.0 years, 45.2% male) consisting of 13.8% pediatric (<18 years), 76.0% adults (18-64 years), and 10.2% elderly adults (>65 years). Overall complication rate was 36.6%, mortality rate 0.5%, and 30-day readmission rate 12.0%. Elderly patients had the highest complication rate (p<0.0001). Overall, large cranioplasties (>5 cm) saw higher complication rates than small cranioplasties (=5 cm, p=0.047). In those with emergent indications only(N=1,282), size did not influence complications-though large cranioplasties showed higher infection risk (p=0.02). Overall, autograft use did not affect outcomes, but was associated with higher complication risk-including infections-in the subset with only emergent indications (p<0.001, p=0.001). Late (>90 days) cranioplasty timing had higher complication rates in both the overall cohort and subset with emergent indications (p<0.001, p<0.001). Index costs of care were mainly driven by hospital payments in both the overall cohort and those with emergent indications.We found a high complication rate associated with cranioplasty in the U.S.A. Older age, large cranioplasties, and delayed cranioplasties increased complication risk overall. Among those with only emergent indications, complications were associated with a delayed time to cranioplasty and autograft usage.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.03.022
View details for PubMedID 28315803