This review aims to evaluate the performance of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaires during pregnancy. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using MEDLINE Scopus, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library. A bivariate meta-analysis was applied for pooling of diagnostic parameters. Six of the total 4719 articles met the inclusion criteria. The Berlin questionnaire (BQ, N = 604) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, N = 420) were the most frequently used screening tools during pregnancy. The pooled prevalence of OSA during pregnancy was 26.7% (95%CI: 16.9%, 34.4%, I(2) = 83.15%). BQ performance was poor to fair with pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.66 (95%CI: 0.45, 0.83; I(2) = 78.65%) and 0.62 (95%CI: 0.48, 0.75; I(2) = 81.55%), respectively. BQ performance was heterogeneous depending on type of reference test and pregnancy. Sensitivity increased if diagnosis was based on polysomnography (0.90), and respiratory disturbance index (0.90). However, sensitivity decreased if screening was performed in early pregnancy (=20 weeks gestation: 0.47), and high-risk pregnancy (0.44). Performance of ESS was poor with pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.44 (95%CI: 0.33, 0.56; I(2) = 32.8%) and 0.62 (95%CI: 0.48, 0.75; I(2) = 81.55%), respectively. In conclusion, BQ and ESS showed poor performance during pregnancy, hence a new OSA screening questionnaire is needed. Registration: PROSPERO registration CRD42015025848.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.smrv.2016.11.003
View details for PubMedID 28007402