To compare the inflammatory profile of hip synovial tissue in those with atraumatic microinstability to patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).Patients with cam and mixed-type FAI (FAI group) and patients with hip instability underwent sampling of the anterolateral synovium. Demographic data, intraoperative measurements, and functional outcome scores (International Hip Outcomes Tool and Short Form-12) were recorded. Cryosections were stained and examined under light microscopy as well as confocal fluorescent microscopy for anti-CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), anti-CD31 (endothelial), and anti-CD68 (macrophage) cell surface markers. A grading system was used to quantify synovitis under light microscopy whereas digital image analysis was used to quantify immunofluorescence staining area. Comparison were made with Student t test, Mann-Whitney U, ?(2), and regression analysis.There were 12 patients in the FAI group and 5 in the instability group. Mean age was not significantly different (P > .05), but there was a significantly greater proportion of females in the instability group versus the FAI group (P < .001). There was a significant correlation (r = 0.653; P = .005) between number of turns needed for 10 mm of distraction and increased synovitis. Synovitis scores also were increased significantly in patients with cam morphology and articular cartilage damage (P = .024) versus those without. Immunohistochemistry did not reveal differences (P > .082) between the instability and FAI groups, but CD68 staining was significantly greater in those with cam morphology and cartilage damage (P < .045). CD45+/CD68- cells were noted in the perivascular area while CD45+/CD68+ cells were noted within the synovial lining in both groups.Increased synovial inflammation was associated with an increased number of turns to achieve joint distraction. Both instability and FAI groups demonstrated baseline levels of synovial inflammation. Synovitis scores also were increased in patients with cartilage damage.An understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind both hip instability and FAI may lead to novel therapeutic anti-inflammatory therapy, which may serve as an adjunct to treatment of mechanical abnormalities in this conditions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.arthro.2016.09.007
View details for PubMedID 27939067