Poor adherence to hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a complex issue. Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver Zhao, C. n., Jin, M. n., Le, R. H., Le, M. H., Chen, V. L., Jin, M. n., Wong, G. L., Wong, V. W., Lim, Y. S., Chuang, W. L., Yu, M. L., Nguyen, M. H. 2017


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance is associated with improved outcomes and long-term survival. Our goal is to evaluate adherence rates to HCC surveillance.We performed a systematic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases and abstract search of relevant studies from recent major liver meetings. All searches and data extraction were performed independently by 2 authors. Analysis was via random-effects models and multivariate meta-regression.A total of 22 studies (n=19,511) met inclusion criteria (original non-interventional studies with defined cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B or chronic hepatitis C with advanced fibrosis populations, and surveillance tests and intervals). Overall adherence rate was 52% (95% CI 38-66%). Adherence was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients compared to chronic hepatitis B and other high risk patients, in European compared to North American studies, in less than 12-month compared to yearly surveillance intervals, and in prospective compared to retrospective studies (71%, 95% CI 64-78% vs. 39%, 95% CI 26-51%, P<0.001). The between-study heterogeneity of all above analyses was significant (P<0.001). Only the study design (retrospective vs. prospective cohort) had statistical significance in a multivariate meta-regression model (P<0.05) and could account for some of the differences above.Overall adherence rate to HCC surveillance was suboptimal at 52% with no significant differences by liver disease etiology or study location in multivariate meta-regression analysis. Further research and educational efforts are needed to improve the current rate of HCC surveillance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

View details for PubMedID 28834146