Surgical Site Infections after Appendectomy Performed in Low and Middle Human Development-Index Countries: A Systematic Review. Surgical infections Foster, D. n., Kethman, W. n., Cai, L. Z., Weiser, T. G., Forrester, J. D. 2017


Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency worldwide. Early intervention is associated with better outcomes. In low and middle Human Development-Index Countries (LMHDICs), late presentation and poor access to healthcare facilities can contribute to greater illness severity and higher complication rates, such as post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs). The current rate of SSIs post-appendectomy in low- and middle-index settings has yet to be described.We performed a systemic review of the literature describing the incidence and management of SSIs after appendectomy in LMHDICs. We conducted qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data in manuscripts describing patients undergoing appendectomy to establish a baseline SSI rate for this procedure in these settings.Four hundred twenty-three abstracts were initially identified. Of these, 35 studies met the criteria for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The overall weighted, pooled SSI rated were 17.9 infections/100 open appendectomies (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.4-25.3 infections/100 open appendectomies) and 8.8 infections/100 laparoscopic appendectomies (95% CI 4.5-13.2 infections/100 laparoscopic appendectomies). The SSI rates were higher in complicated appendicitis and when pre-operative antibiotic use was not specified.Observed SSI rates after appendectomy in LMHDICs are dramatically higher than rates in high Human Development-Index Countries. This is particularly true in cases of open appendectomy, which remains the most common surgical approach in LMHDICs. These findings highlight the need for SSI prevention in LMHDICs, including prompt access to medical and surgical care, routine pre-operative antibiotic use, and implementation of bundled care packages and checklists.

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