Because tumors are much larger in size compared with the beam width of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), raster scanning throughout the entire target is conventionally performed for HIFU thermal ablation. Thermal diffusion affects the temperature elevation and the consequent lesion formation. As a result, the lesion will grow continuously over the course of HIFU therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of scanning pathways on the overall thermal lesion. Two new scanning pathways, spiral scanning from the center to the outside and spiral scanning from the outside to the center, were proposed with the same HIFU parameters (power and exposure time) for each treatment spot. The lesions produced in the gel phantom and bovine liver were compared with those using raster scanning. Although more uniform lesions can be achieved using the new scanning pathways, the produced lesion areas (27.5 ± 12.3 mm(2) and 65.2 ± 9.6 mm(2), respectively) in the gel phantom are significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than those using raster scanning (92.9 ± 11.8 mm(2)). Furthermore, the lesion patterns in the gel phantom and bovine liver were similar to the simulations using temperature and thermal dose-threshold models, respectively. Thermal diffusion, the scanning pathway and the biophysical aspects of the target all play important roles in HIFU lesion production. By selecting the appropriate scanning pathway and varying the parameters as ablation progresses, HIFU therapy can achieve uniform lesions while minimizing the total delivered energy and treatment time.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2011.05.848
View details for Web of Science ID 000293449400012
View details for PubMedID 21775048