Rate of hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance remains low for a large, real-life cohort of patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis. BMJ open gastroenterology Tran, S. A., Le, A. n., Zhao, C. n., Hoang, J. n., Yasukawa, L. A., Weber, S. n., Henry, L. n., Nguyen, M. H. 2018; 5 (1): e000192


In patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) cirrhosis, imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is recommended every 6 months to maximise eligibility for curative treatment. The aim was to determine the adherence rate and outcomes among patients with CHC cirrhosis and whether the adherence rate has improved over time.Retrospective cohort study of patients with CHC cirrhosis (n=2366) monitored for =1?year at Stanford University Medical Center between January 2001 and August 2015.Overall demographics: mean age 54; 62.3% men; 48.3% Caucasian. 24.4% adherent to imaging every 6 months per European Association for the Study of the Liver 2000 and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) 2011 criteria and 44% at least every 12 months per AASLD 2005 criteria. No significant change in adherence before and after 2011. Predictors of multivariable analysis of adherence were age >54 (OR 1.74, p<0.0001), Asian ethnicity (OR 2.23, p<0.0001), liver decompensation (OR 2.40, p<0.0001) and having =2?clinical visits per year (OR 1.33, p=0.01). During follow-up, 9.6% were diagnosed with HCC. Adherent patients were more likely to have smaller tumours (2.3 vs 3.3?cm, p=0.0020), be within the Milan criteria for liver transplants (73.2% vs 54.8%, p=0.006) and receive curative HCC treatment (43.6% vs 24.0%, p=0.005). On multivariable analysis, curative treatment (HR 0.32, p=0.001) and every 6-month imaging (HR 0.34, p=0.005), but not every 6-12?month imaging, were associated with reduced risk of mortality.Adherence to HCC surveillance continues to be poor. Adherent patients with HCC were more likely to undergo curative treatment and have better survival. Research understanding barriers to surveillance is needed.

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