Anatomic versus Metabolic Tumor Response Assessment after Radioembolization Treatment JOURNAL OF VASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY Jongen, J. J., Rosenbaum, C. M., Braat, M. A., van den Bosch, M. J., Sze, D. Y., Kranenburg, O., Rinkes, I., Lam, M. H., van den Hoven, A. F. 2018; 29 (2): 244–53


To assess applicability of metabolic tumor response assessment on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) after radioembolization (RE) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) by comparison with one-dimensional size-based response assessment on MR imaging.This prospective cohort study comprised 38 patients with CRLM undergoing RE. MR imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging were performed at baseline, 1 month (n = 38), and 3 months (n = 21). Longest tumor diameter (LTD) reduction on MR imaging at these time points was compared with reduction in total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on 18F-FDG PET/CT. Hepatic response was compared between RECIST and total liver TLG and correlated with overall survival (OS).TLG and LTD were positively correlated in 106 analyzed metastases (38 patients) at 1 month and 58 metastases (22 patients) at 3 months. Agreement was poor, with LTD underestimating TLG response. A significant association with prolonged OS was found in total liver TLG at 1 month (HR 0.64, P < .01) and 3 months (HR 0.43, P < .01). For LTD, a significant association with OS was found at 3 months (HR 0.10, P < .01). Important differences in liver response classification were found, with total liver TLG identifying more patients and situations where there appeared to be treatment benefit compared with RECIST.TLG response assessment on 18F-FDG PET/CT appears to be more sensitive and accurate, especially at early follow-up, than size-based response assessment on MR imaging in patients with CRLM treated by RE. Semiautomated liver response assessment with total liver TLG is objective, reproducible, rapid, and prognostic.

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