The purpose of this study was to review the global pattern of surgical management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), particularly in diagnosis, outcome measurement, and management.We performed a systematic search in duplicate for surgical studies addressing FAI published up to June 2013. Study parameters, including sample size, study location, surgical intervention technique, diagnostic imaging, outcome measures used, sex distribution, and level of evidence, were obtained. The number of trials and cumulative sample size were analyzed. The surgical interventions, sex distribution, outcome measures, and diagnostic imaging used were compared between geographic regions.We identified 105 studies reporting surgical interventions for FAI. Most studies were completed in North America (52 studies, 3,629 patients) and in Europe (44 studies, 3,745 patients). Asia (3 studies, 49 patients) and Oceania (6 studies, 394 patients) had smaller contributions. There were no studies from South America or Africa. Most research performed in North America, Europe, and Oceania investigated arthroscopic FAI surgery (55% of studies) followed by surgical dislocation (33%), and miniopen (15%) and combined approaches (8%). Methods of diagnosis were consistent worldwide, with radiography being the mainstay of diagnosis (84% of studies). Case series were the most common type of study globally (75% of studies). Outcome measures varied by region; Harris hip scores were most common in North America, Oceania, and Asia, whereas Non-Arthritic Hip Scores and Western Ontario McMaster scores predominated in Europe.Global surgical trends for FAI show a predominance of North American and European studies, studies of lower level evidence, and inconsistent use of outcome measures. However, patterns of diagnostic imaging, sex proportions, and predominance of arthroscopic techniques are consistent worldwide. Future research should focus on development of reliable validated outcome measures and international collaboration to conduct high-quality research and improve our understanding of FAI diagnosis and management.Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.arthro.2014.06.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000345855700017
View details for PubMedID 25150405