Thiazolidinediones and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation Among Patients with Diabetes and Coronary Disease AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pallisgaard, J., Brooks, M., Chaitman, B. R., Boothroyd, D. B., Pere, M., Hlatk, M. A., Bypass Angioplasty Revascularizati 2018; 131 (7): 805–12


We sought to determine whether insulin-sensitizing therapy (thiazolidinediones or metformin) decreased the risk of developing atrial fibrillation compared with insulin-providing therapy (insulin, sulfonylurea, or a meglitinide). Thiazolidinediones are insulin sensitizers that also decrease the inflammatory response. Because inflammation is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation, we hypothesized that treating diabetes with thiazolidinediones might decrease the risk of developing atrial fibrillation.The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and documented coronary artery disease. All patients were randomized to insulin-sensitizing therapy or insulin-providing therapy.A total of 2319 patients entered the study, with 1160 assigned to the insulin-sensitization strategy and 1159 assigned to the insulin-provision strategy. Over a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 90 patients (3.9%) developed new-onset atrial fibrillation. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the incidence of atrial fibrillation was 8.7 per 1000 person-years in patients assigned to insulin sensitization compared with 9.5 in patients assigned to insulin provision with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.38, P = .66). In a time-varying exposure analysis, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 7.2 while exposed to thiazolidinediones and 9.7 while not exposed to thiazolidinediones with an adjusted HR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.33-1.94, P = .62). In a subset of patients matched on propensity to receive a thiazolidinediones, the HR was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.43-1.30, P = .30).We did not find a significant reduction of atrial fibrillation incidence with use of thiazolidinediones.

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