Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and development of proteinuria in some patients (most commonly children), with a predominance for male gender and histological findings of membranous nephropathy on renal biopsy. The presence of immune complexes in the kidney suggests an immune complex basis for the disease, but a direct relation between HBV and membranous nephropathy (or other types of glomerular diseases) remains to be proven. Clearance of HBV antigens, either spontaneous or following antiviral treatments results in improvement in proteinuria. Thus, prompt recognition and specific antiviral treatment are critical in managing patients with HBV and renal involvement. The present review focuses on treatment of HBV with special emphasis given to antiviral therapies, its complications, and dosing in patients with HBV-associated kidney disease.
View details for DOI 10.1159/000324652
View details for Web of Science ID 000291753000008
View details for PubMedID 21677438