Most HIV-1-infected individuals with virological failure on a pharmacologically-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimen do not develop PI-resistance protease mutations. One proposed explanation is that HIV-1 gag or gp41 cytoplasmic domain mutations might also reduce PI susceptibility. In a recent study of paired gag and gp41 sequences from individuals with virological failure on a PI regimen, we did not identify PI-selected mutations and concluded that if such mutations existed, larger numbers of paired sequences from multiple studies would be needed for their identification. In this study, we generated site-specific amino acid profiles using gag and gp41 published sequences from 5,338 and 4,242 ART-naive individuals, respectively, to assist researchers identify unusual mutations arising during therapy and to provide scripts for performing established and novel maximal likelihood estimates of dN/dS substitution rates in paired sequences. The pipelines used to generate the curated sequences, amino acid profiles, and dN/dS analyses will facilitate the application of consistent methods to paired gag and gp41 sequence datasets and expedite the identification of potential sites under PI-selection pressure.
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