OBJECTIVE: To characterize sociodemographic differences in semen parameters among US undergoing a semen analysis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men that provided a semen sample were identified from insurance claims between 2007-2016. Differences in semen parameters were characterized according to age, race, education and region. Mean semen parameters and proportions of men with suboptimal parameters was compared and risks of oligospermia and azoospermia was assessed by logistic regression.RESULTS: Of the 7,263 men included, most men were White (55.1%), Hispanic (20.2%) or Asian (10.2%). Asians had the highest mean semen concentrations (69.2?*?106/mL) whereas Blacks had the lowest (51.3?*?106/mL). Men from the Midwest were more likely to have oligospermia (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.34-1.94) whereas men from the West were less likely (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.82-0.94) when compared with men from South. An association between education and sperm concentration was observed. For example, men with a high school diploma or less were more likely to have oligospermia (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) whereas men with at least a bachelor degree were less likely (OR 0.87; 95%CI 0. 0.76-1.0) when compared with men with less than a bachelor degree.CONCLUSION: As we observed differences in semen quality based on sociodemographic factors, these findings may have clinical implications as relying on a single reference value when guiding infertile couples may be problematic given these variations. Further work is warranted to understand the etiology of such differences and determine if different normative reference values may apply for different populations.
View details for PubMedID 30300659