Background CEP (omega-[2-carboxyethyl]pyrrole) protein adducts are the end products of lipid oxidation associated with inflammation and have been implicated in the induction of angiogenesis in pathological conditions such as tissue ischemia. We synthesized small molecules derived from CEP protein adducts and evaluated the angiogenic effect of the CEP analog CEP 03 in the setting of peripheral arterial disease. Methods and Results The angiogenic effect of CEP 03 was assessed by invitro analysis of primary human microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and tubelike formation in Matrigel (Corning). In the presence of CEP 03, proliferation of endothelial cells invitro increased by 27±18% under hypoxic (1% O2) conditions, reaching similar levels to that of VEGF A (vascular endothelial growth factor A) stimulation (22±10%), relative to the vehicle control treatment. A similar effect of CEP 03 was demonstrated in the increased number of tubelike branches in Matrigel, reaching >70% induction in hypoxia, compared with the vehicle control. The therapeutic potential of CEP 03 was further evaluated in a mouse model of peripheral arterial disease by quantification of blood perfusion recovery and capillary density. In the ischemic hind limb, treatment of CEP 03 encapsulated within Matrigel significantly enhanced blood perfusion by 2-fold after 14days compared with those treated with Matrigel alone. Moreover, these results concurred with histological finding that treatment of CEP 03 in Matrigel resulted in a significant increase in microvessel density compared with Matrigel alone. Conclusions Our data suggest that CEP 03 has a profound positive effect on angiogenesis and neovessel formation and thus has therapeutic potential for treatment of peripheral arterial disease.
View details for PubMedID 30371212