Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a unique rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) which differs clinically, pathologically and biologically from classic HL, warranting a nuanced approach to treatment. CD20 expression by malignant lymphocyte-predominant cells, a tendency for late relapses, and the risk of transformation to aggressive large B-cell lymphoma are characteristic features with important implications for treatment and follow-up. Recognition of histopathological variant patterns is also critical, with important implications for prognosis and treatment. The optimal management for NLPHL is unclear and opinions differ as to whether treatment paradigms should be similar to, or differ from, those for classic HL. Therapy differs for early versus advanced stage disease and for frontline versus relapsed or refractory disease. Potential treatment strategies include radiotherapy, combined modality therapy, chemotherapy, rituximab and watchful waiting. Given the excellent overall survival of NLPHL, treatment choices should be geared towards reducing long-term toxicity and optimizing survivorship. In this review, we provide an overview of the current literature and discuss modern principles in the management of NLPHL.
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