Immunotherapy for glioma: promises and challenges. Neurosurgery clinics of North America Han, S. J., Zygourakis, C. n., Lim, M. n., Parsa, A. T. 2012; 23 (3): 357–70


Novel immunotherapeutic modalities are being pursed in the treatment of high-grade gliomas. This article explains how tumors suppress immune function in the brain. It specifically describes the ways in which tumors limit effective communication with immune cells, secrete immune-inhibitory cytokines and molecules, and express molecules that induce apoptosis of immune cells. It also defines 3 different immunotherapeutic approaches to counteract this tumor-associated immunosuppression: cytokine therapy, passive immunotherapy (either serotherapy or adoptive immunotherapy), and active immunotherapy. Although immunotherapeutic approaches have met with mixed success so far, immunotherapy continues to be actively pursued because of its potential to attack infiltrating high-grade gliomas.

View details for DOI 10.1016/

View details for PubMedID 22748649