Magnetic particle imaging is an emerging tomographic technique with the potential for simultaneous high-resolution, high-sensitivity, and real-time imaging. Magnetic particle imaging is based on the unique behavior of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modeled by the Langevin theory, with the ability to track and quantify nanoparticle concentrations without tissue background noise. It is a promising new imaging technique for multiple applications, including vascular and perfusion imaging, oncology imaging, cell tracking, inflammation imaging, and trauma imaging. In particular, many neuroimaging applications may be enabled and enhanced with magnetic particle imaging. In this review, we will provide an overview of magnetic particle imaging principles and implementation, current applications, promising neuroimaging applications, and practical considerations.
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