There have been significant developments in diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Key phase 3 studies include the CLARINET trial, which evaluated lanreotide in patients with nonfunctioning enteropancreatic NETs; the RADIANT-2 and RADIANT-4 studies, which evaluated everolimus in functioning and nonfunctioning NETs of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs; the TELESTAR study, which evaluated telotristat ethyl in patients with refractory carcinoid syndrome; and the NETTER-1 trial, which evaluated Lu-DOTATATE in NETs of the small intestine and proximal colon (midgut). Based on these and other advances, the North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society convened a multidisciplinary panel of experts with the goal of updating consensus-based guidelines for evaluation and treatment of midgut NETs. The medical aspects of these guidelines (focusing on systemic treatment, nonsurgical liver-directed therapy, and postoperative surveillance) are summarized in this article. Surgical guidelines are described in a companion article.
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