Immune Activation in Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Plus Ipilimumab. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Yi, J. S., Ready, N., Healy, P., Dumbauld, C., Osborne, R., Berry, M., Shoemaker, D., Clarke, J., Crawford, J., Tong, B., Harpole, D., D'Amico, T. A., McSherry, F., Dunphy, F., McCall, S. J., Christensen, J. D., Wang, X., Weinhold, K. J. 2017; 23 (24): 7474-7482


Purpose: To determine the immunologic effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus ipilimumab in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.Experimental Design: This is a single-arm chemotherapy plus phased ipilimumab phase II study of 24 treatment-naïve patients with stage IB-IIIA NSCLC. Patients received neoadjuvant therapy consisting of 3 cycles of paclitaxel with either cisplatin or carboplatin and ipilimumab included in the last 2 cycles.Results: Chemotherapy alone had little effect on immune parameters in PBMCs. Profound CD28-dependent activation of both CD4 and CD8 cells was observed following ipilimumab. Significant increases in the frequencies of CD4+ cells expressing activation markers ICOS, HLA-DR, CTLA-4, and PD-1 were apparent. Likewise, increased frequencies of CD8+ cells expressing the same activation markers, with the exception of PD-1, were observed. We also examined 7 resected tumors and found higher frequencies of activated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes than those observed in PBMCs. Surprisingly, we found 4 cases of preexisting tumor-associated antigens (TAA) responses against survivin, PRAME, or MAGE-A3 present in PBMC at baseline, but neither increased frequencies nor the appearance of newly detectable responses following ipilimumab therapy. Ipilimumab had little effect on the frequencies of circulating regulatory T cells and MDSCs.Conclusions: This study did not meet the primary endpoint of detecting an increase in blood-based TAA T-cell responses after ipilimumab. Collectively, these results highlight the immune activating properties of ipilimumab in early-stage NSCLC. The immune profiling data for ipilimumab alone can contribute to the interpretation of immunologic data from combined immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapies. Clin Cancer Res; 23(24); 7474-82. ©2017 AACR.

View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-2005

View details for PubMedID 28951518

View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5732888