A dual-axes confocal reflectance microscope has been developed that utilizes a narrowband laser at 1310 nm to achieve high axial resolution, image contrast, field of view, and tissue penetration for distinguishing among normal, hyperplastic, and dysplastic colonic mucosa ex vivo. Light is collected off-axis using a low numerical aperture objective to obtain vertical image sections, with 4- to 5-microm resolution, at tissue depths up to 610 microm. Post-objective scanning enables a large field of view (610 x 640 microm), and balanced-heterodyne detection provides sensitivity to collect vertical sections at one frame per second. System optics are optimized to effectively reject out-of-focus scattered light without use of a low-coherence gate. This design is scalable to millimeter dimensions, and the results demonstrate the potential for a miniature instrument to detect precancerous tissues, and hence to perform in vivo histopathology.
View details for DOI 10.1117/1.2363363
View details for Web of Science ID 000242576900023
View details for PubMedID 17092168
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2104521