To systematically analyze patient outcomes after repeat transsphenoidal (TS) surgery for recurrent Cushing's disease.We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients with recurrent Cushing's disease who underwent repeat TS surgery for resection of a pituitary corticotroph adenoma at the University of Virginia Medical Center from 1992 to 2006. Remission at follow-up was defined as a normal postoperative 24-hour urine free cortisol, or continued need for glucocorticoid replacement after repeat TS surgery. Recurrence of the disease was defined as an elevated 24-hour urine free cortisol with clinical symptoms consistent with Cushing's disease while not receiving glucocorticoid replacement. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the effect of potential predictors on remission. Recurrence rates, subsequent treatments, and the final endocrine status of the patients are presented.We identified 36 patients who underwent repeat TS surgery for recurrent Cushing's disease. The mean age of the patients was 40.3 years (range, 17.1-63.0 yr), and 26 were women. The median time to recurrence after initial successful TS surgery was 36 months (range, 4 mo-16 yr). Remission after repeat TS surgery was observed in 22 (61%) of the 36 patients. During the same time period, of the 338 patients who underwent first-time TS surgery for Cushing's disease, remission was achieved in 289 (85.5%). The odds of failure (to achieve remission) for patients with repeat TS surgery for recurrent Cushing's disease were 3.7 times that of patients undergoing first-time TS surgery (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-7.8). Two of the 22 patients with successful repeat TS surgery had a second recurrence at 6 and 11 months, respectively. Complete biochemical and clinical remission after stereotactic radiosurgery, adrenalectomy, and ongoing ketoconazole therapy was achieved in 30 (83.3%) of the 36 patients, and active disease continued in 6 patients (16.7%).Although the success of repeat TS surgery for recurrence of Cushing's disease is less than that of initial surgery, a second procedure offers a reasonable possibility of immediate remission. If the operation is not successful, other treatments, including pituitary radiation, medical therapy, and even bilateral adrenalectomy, are required.
View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000313117.35824.9F
View details for Web of Science ID 000258944100017
View details for PubMedID 18797356