The purpose of this article is to investigate and characterize from a physics perspective the Zap-X (ZAP Surgical Systems, Inc., San Carlos, CA), a new, dedicated self-contained and self-shielded radiosurgery system, focusing on beam energy and performance, leakage, radiation safety, dose delivery accuracy, regulations, quality assurance, and treatment planning. This investigation is required to establish the mechanical and overall performance specifications of the system and to establish baseline parameters for future clinical usage. The applied methods include measurements of energy, focal spot size, beam performance, dosimetry, beam data, treatment planning system, leakage radiation, acceptance testing, and commissioning. The results of the characterization reveal a 3 megavolt (MV) linear accelerator (linac) with a focal spot size of 2 mm, a dose rate of 1,500 MU/min at the isocenter with a dose linearity of 3%, a beam penumbra of less than 3 mm, and beam symmetry of less than 2%. Beam performance, as well as dosimetry characteristics, are suitable for intracranial radiosurgery. It can be concluded that the system was found to meet safety, accuracy, and performance requirements widely accepted in the radiation oncology and radiosurgery industry. Furthermore, the system was shown to meet the practical, clinical needs of the radiosurgery community.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.4275
View details for PubMedID 31183264
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6538235