We describe a new biosensor immunoassay involving optical diffraction to detect clinically important analytes in human body fluids. A silicon wafer is used as a support for immobilization of antigen or antibody. The protein-coated surface is illuminated through a photo mask to create distinct periodic areas of active and inactive protein. When the surface is incubated with a positive sample, antigen-antibody binding occurs only on the active areas. Upon illumination with a light source such as a laser, the resulting biological diffraction grating diffracts the light. A negative sample does not result in diffraction because no antigen-antibody binding occurs to create the diffraction grating. The presence or absence of a diffraction signal differentiates between positive and negative samples, and the intensity of the signal provides a quantitative measure of the analyte concentration. The technique is demonstrated with a quantitative assay of choriogonadotropin in serum.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GF97100007
View details for PubMedID 1893575