PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the demographics, usage patterns and complication rates of clomiphene use in male patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed male patients from ages 20 to 55 years old who were prescribed clomiphene citrate from 2001 to 2014 using the Truven Health MarketScan, a US claims database. We collected data regarding associated medical diagnoses, diagnostic testing, duration of use, and reported side effects including thrombotic events, vision problems, gynecomastia, mental disorders, liver disease, nausea, or skin problems.RESULTS: In total, 12,318 men took clomiphene and represented the primary study cohort, with a mean age of 37.8 years. The percentage of men prescribed clomiphene increased over the study period, as did the average age of clomiphene users. Associated diagnoses included male infertility (52.0%), testicular hypofunction (13.5%), erectile dysfunction (2.4%), and low libido (0.4%). Associated testing included semen analysis (43.7%), testosterone (23.5%), luteinizing hormone (19.3%), and follicle-stimulating hormone (21.1%) levels. The median time of clomiphene use was 3.6 months, with 63% of men stopping within 6 months. No increased risk of reported clomiphene side effects were apparent in men taking the medication.CONCLUSIONS: There is a rising prevalence of clomiphene usage without associated adverse side effects in the US. The variability in associated diagnoses, diagnostic testing, and duration of use suggest a need for greater awareness of the proper evaluation and treatment of the men who are prescribed clomiphene.
View details for DOI 10.5534/wjmh.190028
View details for PubMedID 31385473