Background Primary tumor maximum standardized uptake value is a prognostic marker for non-small cell lung cancer. In the setting of malignancy, bone marrow activity from fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET may be informative for clinical risk stratification. Purpose To determine whether integrating FDG PET radiomic features of the primary tumor, tumor penumbra, and bone marrow identifies lung cancer disease-free survival more accurately than clinical features alone. Materials and Methods Patients were retrospectively analyzed from two distinct cohorts collected between 2008 and 2016. Each tumor, its surrounding penumbra, and bone marrow from the L3-L5 vertebral bodies was contoured on pretreatment FDG PET/CT images. There were 156 bone marrow and 512 tumor and penumbra radiomic features computed from the PET series. Randomized sparse Cox regression by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator identified features that predicted disease-free survival in the training cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were built and locked in the training cohort, then evaluated in an independent cohort for temporal validation. Results There were 227 patients analyzed; 136 for training (mean age, 69 years ± 9 [standard deviation]; 101 men) and 91 for temporal validation (mean age, 72 years ± 10; 91 men). The top clinical model included stage; adding tumor region features alone improved outcome prediction (log likelihood, -158 vs -152; P = .007). Adding bone marrow features continued to improve performance (log likelihood, -158 vs -145; P = .001). The top model integrated stage, two bone marrow texture features, one tumor with penumbra texture feature, and two penumbra texture features (concordance, 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.85; P < .001). This fully integrated model was a predictor of poor outcome in the independent cohort (concordance, 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.64, 0.80; P < .001) and a binary score stratified patients into high and low risk of poor outcome (P < .001). Conclusion A model that includes pretreatment fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET texture features from the primary tumor, tumor penumbra, and bone marrow predicts disease-free survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer more accurately than clinical features alone. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2019190357
View details for PubMedID 31526257