The purpose of this study was to determine if balloon injury to the adjacent arterial wall during intracoronary stent deployment influences late in-stent neointimal formation. Stent design and deployment techniques are considered important factors in determining acute and long-term success with intracoronary stenting. Experimental and clinical studies support that the extent of neointimal formation and the probability for restenosis are influenced by the magnitude of arterial trauma induced with stenting. Nineteen 18-mm-long balloon-expandable stainless steel stents (MULTI-LINK Duet) were implanted at a 1:1 stent-to-artery ratio in the coronary arteries of swine with a conventional noncompliant balloon (n = 10) or a novel noncompliant balloon with short tapered shoulders to prevent edge dissection (n = 9). Quantitative coronary angiography and histology were used to evaluate balloon and artery interactions and the chronic vascular responses to the stents. Nineteen stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of seven swines at an inflation pressure of 14 atm using a standard noncompliant (n = 10) or a unique short transitional edge protection (n = 9) balloon. Histologic analysis at 28 days demonstrated balloon-associated barotrauma in 13 of 20 (65%) of adjacent nonstented arterial segments with the conventional balloon and only 3 of 18 (17%) of the adjacent nonstented arterial segments with the short transition edge protection balloon (P = 0.022). In-stent neointimal area and % stenosis correlated with the severity of peristent arterial injury (r = 0.43, P = 0.01). In-stent vessel injury scores were similar for stents with peristent injury (1.0+/-0.3) versus stents without peristent injury (1.0+/-0.03, P = 0.73). In-stent neointimal area and % stenosis were greater for stents with peristent injury (2.36+/-0.74 mm(2), 32%+/-9%) as compared to stents without peristent injury (1.39+/-0.70 mm(2), 20%+/-10%, P = 0.01). Arterial wall injury adjacent to a stent after high-pressure deployment contributes to late in-stent neointimal hyperplasia in this model. These experimental data suggest that further study is warranted to refine stent implantation techniques and that modifications of balloon shape or material may be useful to optimize stent deployment and reduce arterial trauma.
View details for Web of Science ID 000089106300026
View details for PubMedID 10973033