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The effect of race on the referral process for invasive cardiac procedures. Medical care research and review : MCRR Einbinder, L. C., Schulman, K. A. 2000; 57 Suppl 1: 162-80


Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Blacks are more likely than whites to experience premature disease, and they have poorer prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Multiple studies have demonstrated that blacks are less likely to be referred for certain invasive cardiac procedures. Few studies have examined the effect of race on physician and patient decision making in referrals for cardiac procedures. The authors present a framework for the complex series of steps involved in obtaining invasive cardiac care. Patient race can affect each of these steps, and differences in physician and patient race may be a particular impediment to effective communication about symptoms and preferences and to the establishment of a therapeutic partnership. The potential role of communication in race-discordant physician-patient relationships suggests a need for more research in physician decision making and for efforts to promote cultural competency as a core component of medical education.

View details for DOI 10.1177/1077558700057001S08

View details for PubMedID 11092162