Joint preservation is more effective in early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH); thus, prompt diagnosis when the femoral head is still salvageable is important. We report a 20-year retrospective study that summarizes age at presentation, etiology, and Association Research Circulation Osseous stage at diagnosis.Our database was reviewed to identify patients younger than 65 years of age who were diagnosed with atraumatic ONFH between 1998 and 2018. Demographic characteristics of patients were evaluated and categorized into different subgroups.Four hundred thirteen patients were identified. At initial presentation, 23% were diagnosed with early-stage ONFH, while 77% were diagnosed with late-stage ONFH. Forty-nine percent had a history of corticosteroid use, of which 13% were diagnosed with hematologic malignancy and 8% were diagnosed with lupus. Ethanol abuse, idiopathic, sickle cell disease, and human immunodeficiency virus were present in 11%, 30%, 3%, and 3%, respectively. The mean age of patients with corticosteroid use (40 ± 14 years) was significantly younger than ethanol use (46 ± 11 years, P = .014) and idiopathic causes (48 ± 11 years, P < .001), but significantly older than sickle cell disease (32 ± 11 years, P = .031). There was no difference in the age of presentation for early-stage and late-stage ONFH by etiology.Nearly 80% of the patients presented with late-stage ONFH. Hence, we have a narrow window of opportunity for hip preservation surgery before femoral head collapse. A multidisciplinary approach to improve screening awareness for early detection by focusing on the etiologic identification and patient education might reduce the incidence of hip arthroplasty in young patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.arth.2020.04.092
View details for PubMedID 32456965