Introduction Acute carotid stent occlusion (CSO) is a rare complication of endovascular carotid stent placement that requires emergent intervention. We describe angioplasty or combined angioplasty and aspiration thrombectomy as a new endovascular technique for CSO treatment. The technique is compared to others previously described in the literature. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent endovascular treatment (ET) of acute symptomatic CSO from January 2008 to March 2018 at our neurovascular referral center. Patient demographics, endovascular treatment details, and outcome data were determined from the electronic medical record. Primary outcome was successful stent recanalization and cerebral reperfusion (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) score IIB-III). Secondary outcomes were National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) shift from presentation to discharge, mortality, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months. Additionally, a literature review (years 2008-2019) was performed to characterize other techniques for ET of CSO. Results Four patients who underwent ET of acute CSO were identified. ET treatment by angioplasty (n = 1) or combined aspiration thrombectomy and angioplasty (n = 3) resulted in carotid stent recanalization in all patients. Tandem intracranial occlusions were present in three patients (75%), and successful cerebral reperfusion was achieved in all patients. Patient symptoms improved (mean NIHSS shift -5.3 ± 7.2 at discharge). One patient died of a symptomatic reperfusion hemorrhage and another died of cardiac complications by 3-month follow-up. The mRS scores of the surviving patients were 1 and 3. Previously described studies (n = 14) using different and varied techniques had moderate recanalization rates and outcomes. Conclusion Combined aspiration thrombectomy and angioplasty for the neurointerventional treatment of acute CSO leads to high rates of stent recanalization and cerebral reperfusion. The recanalization rate here is improved compared to previously reported techniques. Further multicenter studies are required to risk-stratify patients for specific ET interventions.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.7997
View details for PubMedID 32523851
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7274505