Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal primary central nervous system malignancy in adults with a median survival of less than 15 months. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are the standard of care and provide modest benefits in survival, but tumor recurrence is inevitable. The poor prognosis of GBM has made the development of novel therapies targeting GBM of paramount importance. Immunotherapy via dendritic cells (DCs) has garnered attention and research as a potential strategy to boost anti-tumor immunity in recent years. As the "professional" antigen processing and presenting cells, DCs play a key role in the initiation of anti-tumor immune responses. Pre-clinical studies in GBM have shown long-term tumor survival and immunological memory in murine models with stimulation of DC activity with various antigens and costimulatory molecules. Phase I and II clinical trials of DC vaccines in GBM have demonstrated some efficacy in improving the median overall survival with minimal to no toxicity with promising initial results from the first Phase III trial. However, there remains no standardization of vaccines in terms of which antigens are used to pulse DCs ex vivo, sites of DC injection, and optimal adjuvant therapies. Future work with DC vaccines aims to elucidate the efficacy of DC-based therapy alone or in combination with other immunotherapy adjuvants in additional Phase III trials.
View details for DOI 10.3390/cancers11040537
View details for Web of Science ID 000467773400105
View details for PubMedID 30991681
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6521200