Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive central nervous system cancer with poor prognosis despite maximal therapy. The recent advent of immunotherapy holds great promise for improving GBM survival and has already made great strides toward changing management strategies. A diverse set of biomarkers have been implicated as immunotherapeutic targets and prognostic indicators in other cancers. Some of the more extensively studied examples include cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, and TGF-ß), checkpoint molecules (PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, LAG-3, CD137, GITR, OX40), and growth/angiogenesis proteins (endoglin and EGFR). Emerging theories involving the tumor mutational landscape and microbiome have also been explored in relation to cancer treatment. Although identification of novel biomarkers may improve and help direct treatment of patients with GBM, the next step is to explore the role of biomarkers in precision medicine and selection of specific immunotherapeutic drugs in an individualized manner.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.03.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000405472500064
View details for PubMedID 28300714