The immune microenvironment is considered a major obstacle to generating an effective antitumor immune response. Checkpoint inhibitors manipulate the co-stimulatory response between antigen-presenting cells and immune cells-or between the tumor and immune cells-to elicit an antitumor immune response that would have otherwise been suppressed. Checkpoint inhibitors have shown great promise in the clinics, and some inhibitors such as anti-CTLA-4 antibodies and anti-PD-1 antibodies have gained FDA approval for certain tumors. Here we will discuss the current state of checkpoint inhibitors, biomarker strategies, and management of associated toxicities in glioblastoma.
View details for DOI 10.1093/neuonc/nov174
View details for Web of Science ID 000368421200006
View details for PubMedID 26516223
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4625892