Prevalence of Hepatitis B Vaccination Coverage and Serologic Evidence of Immunity Among US-Born Children and Adolescents From 1999 to 2016. JAMA network open Le, M. H., Yeo, Y. H., So, S., Gane, E., Cheung, R. C., Nguyen, M. H. 2020; 3 (11): e2022388


Importance: The World Health Assembly has called for the elimination of hepatitis B and C by 2030. As hepatitis B has no cure, the US strategy to eliminate hepatitis B has focused on prevention through vaccination. However, there are limited data on the trend in vaccine-associated immunity since the US implementation of universal infant hepatitis B vaccination.Objective: To compare self-reported hepatitis B vaccination coverage among children and adolescents with serologic evidence of immunity and infection in the US from 1999 to 2016.Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2016. US-born persons aged 2 to 18 years without missing hepatitis B serologic test results and with reported vaccination history were included. Data were analyzed from September 2017 to June 2018.Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of participants who reported complete vaccination for hepatitis B and who had positive serologic test results indicating immunity.Results: Of 21?873 children and adolescents, 51.2%% were male, and the mean (SD) age was 10.6 (4.6) years. The survey reported that hepatitis B vaccination coverage increased significantly from 1999 to 2016 (from 62.6% [95% CI, 58.6%-66.4%] to 86.3% [95% CI, 82.9%-89.2%]; P<.001). Vaccine-associated immunity also increased from 1999 to 2016 among children aged 2 to 5 years (from 60.7% [95% CI, 48.8%-71.4%] to 65.2% [95% CI, 57.4%-72.3%]; P=.001) but decreased among children aged 6 to 10 years (from 64.6% [95% CI, 57.7%-70.9%] to 46.5% [95% CI, 39.1%-54.0%]; P<.001), adolescents aged 11 to 13 years (from 68.8% [95% CI, 58.1%-77.8%] to 26.2% [95% CI, 18.6%-35.5%]; P<.001), and adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (from 68.5% [95% CI, 62.9%-73.6%] to 15.6% [95% CI, 12.2%-19.8%]; P<.001). By birth year, serologic evidence of vaccine-associated immunity significantly decreased in the 1994-2003 NHANES birth cohort but not among those born between 1988 and 1993. Non-US-born children and adolescents did not show the same decreasing trend in immunity.Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, decreasing hepatitis B immunity was observed among US-born children and adolescents in the 1994-2003 NHANES birth cohort despite increasing rates of hepatitis B vaccination coverage. These findings suggest a possible need for surveillance and a booster vaccine dose for hepatitis B as those without serologic evidence of immunity become young adults and may engage in behaviors associated with an increased risk for infection.

View details for DOI 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.22388

View details for PubMedID 33175174