Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been repeatedly shown to be a valuable source for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine, including bony tissue repair. However, engraftment at the injury site is poor. Recently, it has been suggested that MSCs and other cells act via a paracrine signaling mechanism. Exosomes are nanostructures that have been implicated in this process. They carry DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids and play an important role in cell-to-cell communication directly modulating their target cell at a transcriptional level. In a bone microenvironment, they have been shown to increase osteogenesis and osteogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro. In the following review, we will discuss the most advanced and significant knowledge of biological functions of exosomes in bone regeneration and their clinical applications in osseous diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.TEB.2020.0246
View details for PubMedID 33297857