Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, surveillance, and management of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with vascular liver disease. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences Prasad, D. n., Nguyen, M. H. 2021


Vascular liver disease (VLD) presents special challenges in the diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC arising in the setting of vascular liver disease is often thought to be due to elevated hepatic arterial blood flow, rather than progressive fibrosis from chronic inflammation as with other chronic liver conditions such as viral hepatitis, autoimmune, and metabolic liver diseases. Vascular alteration inherent in VLD often impedes HCC non-invasive diagnosis and loco-regional treatment that depend on vascular properties found in typical liver environment. Benign and pre-malignant liver nodules such as focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma are also more common in certain VLDs, further adding to surveillance and diagnostic challenges. In this synopsis, we aimed to review available literature on the epidemiology, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of HCC in patients with VLD and specifically Budd-Chiari syndrome, congenital porto-systemic shunts, Fontan-associated liver disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

View details for DOI 10.1002/kjm2.12368

View details for PubMedID 33655707