It is unclear how immune perturbations may influence the pathogenesis of idiopathic gastroparesis, a prevalent functional disorder of the stomach which lacks animal models. Several studies have noted altered immune characteristics in the deep gastric muscle layer associated with gastroparesis, but data are lacking for the mucosal layer, which is endoscopically accessible. We hypothesized that immune dysregulation is present in the gastroduodenal mucosa in idiopathic gastroparesis and that specific immune profiles are associated with gastroparesis clinical parameters.In this cross-sectional prospective case-control study, routine endoscopic biopsies were used for comprehensive immune profiling by flow cytometry, multicytokine array, and gene expression in 3 segments of the stomach and the duodenal bulb. Associations of immune endpoints with clinical parameters of gastroparesis were also explored.The gastric mucosa displayed large regional variation of distinct immune profiles. Furthermore, several-fold increases in innate and adaptive immune cells were found in gastroparesis. Various immune cell types showed positive correlations with duration of disease, proton pump inhibitor dosing, and delayed gastric emptying.This initial observational study showed immune compartmentalization of the human stomach mucosa and significant immune dysregulation at the level of leukocyte infiltration in idiopathic gastroparesis patients that extends to the duodenum. Select immune cells, such as macrophages, may correlate with clinicopathological traits of gastroparesis. This work supports further mucosal studies to advance our understanding of gastroparesis pathophysiology.
View details for DOI 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000349
View details for PubMedID 33979305