In 2009, a list of nonpolymorphic HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs), called surveillance DRMs (SDRMs), was created to monitor transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Since 2009, TDR increased and antiretroviral therapy (ART) practices changed. We examined the changing prevalence of SDRMs and identified candidate SDRMs defined as nonpolymorphic DRMs present on = 1 expert DRM list and in =0.1% of ART-experienced persons. Candidate DRMs were further characterized according to their association with antiretrovirals and changing prevalence. Among NRTI-SDRMs, tenofovir-associated mutations increased in prevalence while thymidine analog mutations decreased in prevalence. Among candidate NRTI-SDRMs, there were six tenofovir-associated mutations including three which increased in prevalence (K65N, T69deletion, K70G/N/Q/T). Among candidate NNRTI-SDRMs, six that increased in prevalence were associated with rilpivirine (E138K/Q, V179L, H221Y) or doravirine (F227C/L) resistance. With the notable exceptions of I47A and I50L, most PI-SDRMs decreased in prevalence. Three candidate PI-SDRMs were accessory darunavir-resistance mutations (L10F, T74P, L89V). Adding the candidate SDRMs listed above was estimated to increase NRTI, NNRTI, and PI TDR prevalence by 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.3%, respectively. We describe trends in the prevalence of nonpolymorphic HIV-1 DRMs in ART-experienced persons. These data should be considered in decisions regarding SDRM list updates and TDR monitoring.
View details for DOI 10.3390/v13050879
View details for PubMedID 34064774