BACKGROUND: Precise targeting of cortical surface electrodes to epileptogenic regions defined by anatomic and electrophysiological guideposts remains a surgical challenge during implantation of responsive neurostimulation (RNS) devices.OBJECTIVE: To describe a hybrid fluoroscopic and neurophysiological technique for targeting of subdural cortical surface electrodes to anatomic regions with limited direct visualization, such as the interhemispheric fissure.METHODS: Intraoperative two-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy was used to colocalize and align an electrode for permanent device implantation with a temporary in Situ electrode placed for extraoperative seizure mapping. Intraoperative phase reversal mapping technique was performed to distinguish primary somatosensory and motor cortex.RESULTS: We applied these techniques to optimize placement of an interhemispheric strip electrode connected to a responsive neurostimulator system for detection and treatment of seizures arising from a large perirolandic cortical malformation. Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) phase reversal technique facilitated neuroanatomic mapping and electrode placement.CONCLUSION: In challenging-to-access anatomic regions, fluoroscopy and intraoperative neurophysiology can be employed to augment targeting of neuromodulation electrodes to the site of seizure onset zone or specific neurophysiological biomarkers of clinical interest while minimizing brain retraction.
View details for DOI 10.1093/ons/opab182
View details for PubMedID 34133746