OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of male and female athlete triad risk factors in ultramarathon runners and explore associations between sex hormones and bone mineral density (BMD).DESIGN: Multiyear cross-sectional study.SETTING: One hundred-mile ultramarathon.PARTICIPANTS: Competing runners were recruited in 2018 and 2019.ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Participants completed a survey assessing eating behaviors, menstrual history, and injury history; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for BMD; and laboratory evaluation of sex hormones, vitamin D, and ferritin (2019 cohort only).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment Score was calculated for each participant.RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three runners participated (83 males and 40 females, mean age 46.2 and 41.8 years, respectively). 44.5% of men and 62.5% of women had elevated risk for disordered eating. 37.5% of women reported a history of bone stress injury (BSI) and 16.7% had BMD Z scores <-1.0. 20.5% of men had a history of BSI and 30.1% had Z-scores <-1.0. Low body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 kg/m2) was seen in 15% of women and no men. The Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment classified 61.1% of women and 29.2% of men as moderate risk and 5.6% of both men and women as high risk.CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to measure BMD in both male and female ultramarathon runners. Our male population had a higher prevalence of low BMD than the general population; females were more likely to report history of BSI. Risk of disordered eating was elevated among our participants but was not associated with either low BMD or low BMI.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000956
View details for PubMedID 34232162