BACKGROUND: Devascularization of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) before nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) enhances blood flow to the skin. This study analyzed the effect of the interval between stages in two-stage (2S) operations and compared the ischemic events with those of one-stage (1S) NSM.METHODS: Ischemic complications were defined as partial/reversible (PR) or full-thickness/irreversible (FI) skin necrosis of the NAC or flap. The latter encompassed limited areas of the NAC, resulting in loss of nipple height or areolar circumference without affecting the integrity or appearance of the NAC. Outcomes between the two groups were compared using chi-square and both uni- and multivariate analyses.RESULTS: From 2015 to 2019, 109 breastsunderwent 2S NSM and 103 breasts underwent 1S NSM. Grade 2 or 3 breast ptosis was more common in the 2S group than in the 1S group (60.5% vs 30.5%; p < 0.01). The median time between devascularization and NSM was 30 days (range, 11-415 days). After devascularization, ischemic events occurred in 25.7% of the breasts. Nipple loss occurred in 7.8% of the 1S group and 0% of the 2S group. Both PR and FI NAC ischemic events were observed in 66.7% of the breasts when NSM took place fewer than 20 days (n = 9) after devascularization versus 15% when NSM took place20 days or longer afterward (n = 100). Overall, NAC, flap ischemic complications, or both occurred in 35.9% of the 1S group versus 20.2% of the 2S group (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the odds ratio of ischemic complications in the 2S versus the 1S group was 0.38 (range, 0.19-0.75).CONCLUSIONS: Fewer ischemic complications and no nipple loss occurred in 2S NSM. Ischemic events are fewer when the interval between devascularization and NSM is 20 days or longer.
View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-021-10456-6
View details for PubMedID 34291379