Previous studies indicated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and proNGF differentially regulate the phenotype of macrophages and microglia via actions at tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) and p75 neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR), respectively. The ability of HIV gp120 and virions to induce the secretion of factors toxic to neurons was suppressed by NGF and enhanced by proNGF, suggesting the potential for neurotrophin based "anti-inflammatory" interventions. To investigate the "anti-inflammatory" potential of the p75NTR ligand, LM11A-31, we treated cultured macrophages and microglia with HIV gp120 in the presence or absence of the ligand and evaluated the morphological phenotype, intrinsic calcium signaling, neurotoxic activity and proteins in the secretome. LM11A-31 at 10nM was able to suppress the release of neurotoxic factors from both monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and microglia. The protective effects correlated with a shift in morphology and a unique secretory phenotype rich in growth factors that overrode the actions of HIV gp120. The protein pattern was generally consistent with anti-inflammatory, phagocytic and tissue remodeling functions. Although the toxic factor(s) and the source of the neuroprotection were not identified, the data indicated that an increased degradation of NGF induced by HIV gp120 was likely to contribute to neuronal vulnerability. Although substantial work is still needed to reveal the functions of many proteins in the mononuclear phagocyte secretome, such as growth and differentiation factors, the data clearly indicate that the ligand LM11A-31 has excellent therapeutic potential due to its ability to induce a more protective phenotype that restricts activation by HIV.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11481-021-10002-x
View details for PubMedID 34296391